"Outfitting next generation displays with optical metasurfaces" I.Kim, G. Yoon, J. Jang, P. Genevet, K.T. Nam, and J. Rho ACS Photonics DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.8b00809 (2018) we briefly introduce the working mechanism of metasurface holograms and colorations, and review state-of-the-art techniques in each field from perspective of materials, functionalities, and fabrication methodologies towards real-life display applications. Finally, we conclude on the potential outcome and outlook on this technology and highlight the key challenges to be solved for next generation display. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsphotonics.8b00809
 Special issue on "Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications" F. Ding, P. Genevet and S.I. Bozhevolnyi, Applied Sciences, 8, 1727 (2018) This special issue is launched to provide a possibility for researchers in the area of metasurfaces to highlight the most recent exciting developments and discuss different metasurface configurations in depth, so as to further promote practical applications of metasurfaces.
CRHEA, in collaboration with the center of the CNRS International NTU THALES Research Alliance in Singapore, presents a method for designing ultrathin optical components - commonly called metasurfaces - of arbitrary shapes. The method relies on an optical transformation technique used in the field of metamaterials. With this results, it is now possible of predicting and designing the optical response of metasurfaces conformal to non-planar objects. This method would enable new design opportunities for free-form optics, illusion optics, radar and military camouflage.
 Les métasurfaces, des composants optiques fonctionnels ultra-minces P. Genevet, P. Chavel, N. Bonod, Photoniques 87, 25 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1051/photon/20178725 Les composants optiques réfractifs et diffractifs façonnent le front d’onde en jouant sur le déphasage accumulé lors de la propagation de la lumière. Des nanostructures gravées à l’interface entre deux matériaux permettent d’introduire une polarisation de surface supplémentaire qui élargit le champ de créativité vers de nouveaux composants non-réfractifs. Ces interfaces optiques, ou métasurfaces, ont des propriétés et des performances souvent inattendues qui peuvent s’avérer intéressantes pour des applications en optique embarquée.
 Freestanding dielectric nanohole array metasurface for mid-infrared wavelength applications J.R.Ong, H.S. Chu, V.H Chen, Y.A. Zhu, P. Genevet, Optics Letters 42(13) 2639-2642 (2017) We designed and simulated freestanding dielectric optical metasurfaces based on arrays of etched nanoholes in a silicon membrane. We also identified the mechanisms responsible for high forward scattering efficiency and showed that these conditions are connected with the well-known Kerker conditions already proposed for isolated scatterers.
Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, Optica Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 139-152 (2017) This article reviews recent progress leading to the realization of planar optical components made of a single layer of phase shifting nanostructures. After introducing the principles of planar optics and discussing earlier works on subwavelength diffractive optics, we introduce a classification of metasurfaces based on their different phase mechanisms and profiles and a comparison between plasmonic and dielectric metasurfaces.
 Anisotropic Surface Plasmon Polariton Generation Using Bimodal V‑Antenna Based Metastructures D. Wintz, A. Ambrosio, A. Y. Zhu, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso , ACS Photonics 4 (1) (2017) 22-27. Here, through near-field scanning optical microscopy, we study a 1D metastructure comprised of V-antennas in the context of generating asymmetric surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wavefronts.
Measurement of bound states in the continuum by a detector embedded in a photonic crystal R. Gansch, S. Kalchmair, P. Genevet, T. Zederbauer, H. Detz, A. M Andrews, W. Schrenk, F. Capasso, M. Lončar and G. Strasser, Light: Science & Applications (2016) 5, e16147; doi:10.1038/lsa.2016.147 We directly measure optical bound states in the continuum (BICs) by embedding a photodetector into a photonic crystal slab. Polarization mixing between photonic crystal slab modes was observed and described using a plane wave expansion simulation.
Controlling electromagnetic fields at boundaries of arbitrary geometries J. Y. H. Teo, L. J. Wong, C. Molardi and P. Genevet Phys. Rev. A 94, 023820 (2016). We introduce the concept of conformal boundary optics: a design theory that determines the optical response for designer input and output fields at at metasurfaces of arbitrary geometries.
 Traditional and emerging materials for optical metasurfaces Alexander Y. Zhu, Arseniy I. Kuznetsov, Boris Luk’yanchuk, Nader Engheta, Patrice Genevet Nanophotonics ISSN (Online) 2192-8614, ISSN (Print) 2192-8606, DOI: 10.1515/nanoph-2016-0032. In this article, we present a brief review of metasurfaces from a materials perspective, and examine how the choice of different materials impact functionalities ranging from operating bandwidth to efficiencies. We place particular emphasis on emerging and non-traditional materials for metasurfaces such as high index dielectrics, topological insulators and digital metamaterials, and the potentially transformative role they could play in shaping further advances in the field.
 Broadband mode conversion via gradient index metamaterials H. Wang, Y. Xu, P. Genevet, J-H Jiang, H. Y. Chen, Scientific Reports| 6:24529 | DOI: 10.1038/srep24529 (2016). We propose a design for broadband waveguide mode conversion based on gradient index metamaterials (GIMs). Numerical simulations demonstrate that the zeroth order of transverse magnetic mode or the first order of transverse electric mode (TM0/TE1) can be converted into the first order of transverse magnetic mode or the second order of transverse electric mode (TM1/TE2) for a broadband of frequencies.
2015  Achromatic Metasurface Lens at Telecommunication Wavelengths M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. Kats, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, Nano Letters, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01727. (2015) We utilize an aperiodic array of coupled dielectric nanoresonators to demonstrate a multiwavelength achromatic lens.
 Controlled steering of Cherenkov surface plasmon wakes with a one-dimensional metamaterial P. Genevet, D. Wintz, A. Ambrosio, A. She, R. Blanchard and F. Capasso, Nature Nanotechnology, doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.137 (2015). Surface plasmon wakes can be created and steered using a one-dimensional metamaterial consisting of rotated nanoslits in which the phase velocity of a running wave of polarization propagates faster than the phase velocity of the surface plasmons.
 Holographic metalens for switchable focusing of surface plasmons D. Wintz, P. Genevet, A. Ambrosio, A. woolf and F. Capasso, Nano Letters, 15, 3585 (2015). We present the design of a new lens based on holographic principles. The key feature is the ability to switchably control SPP focusing by changing either the incident wavelength or polarization.
 Multiwavelength Achromatic metasurface optical components by dispersive phase compensation F. Aieta, M.A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, Science, 347, 1342-1345 (2015). We show that dispersion can be overcome with an engineered wavelength-dependent phase shift imparted by a metasurface, and we demonstrate a design that deflects three wavelengths by the same angle.
 Optical Metasurfaces for the real world P. Genevet, invited commentary Nature Nanotechnology, 10,11-15 (2015) Early-career researchers share their thoughts on how to make use of the ability to manipulate light at the nanoscale.
 Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress P. Genevet and F. Capasso, Reports of Progress in Physics, 78 (2), 024401 (2015) We review recent developments in the field of surface electromagnetic wave holography.
2014  Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization P. Rauter, J. Lin, P. Genevet, S. P Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Giles Davies, E. H Linfield and F. Capasso, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, (52) E5623-E5632 (2014) We present a method for monolithic control of the degree of circular polarization by aperture antennas forming a surface-emitting grating on a semiconductor laser cavity and demonstrate its realization for a terahertz quantum cascade laser.
 Twisted Focusing of Optical vortices with Broadband Flat Spiral Zone plates H. Liu , M. Q. Mehmood , K. Huang , L. Ke , H. Ye , P. Genevet , M. Zhang , A. Danner , S. P. Yeo , C.-W. Qiu , and J. Teng”, Advanced Optical Materials doi: 10.1002/adom.201400315 (2014) Nanostructured flat logarithmic-spiral zone plates (LSZPs) are proposed to produce as well as focus optical vortices with a long focal depth in the broadband visible range.
Flat Optics: Wavefronts Control With Huygens’ Interfaces P. Genevet and F. Capasso, IEEE Photonics 6, 0700404 (2014) Short invited commentary on flat optics
2013  Aberrations of flat lenses and aplanatic metasurfaces F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Capasso, Optics Express, 21, 31530-31539 (2013) A study of optical aberrations for flat lenses based on phase discontinuities is reported.
Vanadium dioxide as a natural disordered metamaterial: perfect thermal emission and large broadband negative differential thermal emittance M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, S. Zhang, P. Genevet, C. Ko, S. Ramanathan and F. Capasso Physical Review X, 3 041004 (2013). We experimentally demonstrate that a thin (approximately 150-nm) film of vanadium dioxide deposited on sapphire has an anomalous thermal emittance profile.
 Enhancement of the color contrast in ultra-thin highly-absorbing Optical coatings M.A. Kats, S. Byrnes, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, M. Kolle, J. Aizenberg and F. Capasso, Applied Physics Letters103, 101104 (2013). We show that optical coatings, resulting from interference in highly absorbing dielectric layers on metal substrates, can be augmented by an additional transparent subwavelength layer.
 Nanostructured-diffractive optical components for broadband manipulation of light J. Lin, P. Genevet, M.A. Kats, N. Antoniou and F. Capasso. Nano Letters 13 4269 (2013). The first two authors equally contributed to this work. We report a new type of holographic interface, which is able to manipulate the three fundamental properties of light (phase, amplitude, and polarization) over a broad wavelength range.
Quantum-Coherence Enhanced Surface Plasmon Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation K. Dorfman, J. Pankaj, D. Voronine, P. Genevet, F. Capasso and M. O. Scully. Physical Review Letters 111, 043601 (2013). We investigate surface plasmon amplification in a silver nanoparticle coupled to an externally driven three-level gain medium and show that quantum coherence significantly enhances the generation of surface plasmons.
High-power low-divergence tapered quantum cascade lasers with plasmonic collimators R. Blanchard, T. S. Mansuripur, B. Gokden, N. Yu, M. Kats, P. Genevet, K. Fujita, T. Edamura,M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, Applied Physics Letters102, 191114 ( (2013) Plasmonic collimators are fabricated on the facet of the uncoated lasers without compromising power output, demonstrating the viability of this beam-shaping strategy for high-power lasers.
Generation of two-dimensional plasmonic bottle beams P. Genevet, J. Dellinger, R. Blanchard, A. She, M. Petit, B. Cluzel, M. A. Kats, F. de Fornel and F. Capasso, Optics Express 21, 10295 (2013). By analogy to the three dimensional optical bottle beam, we introduce the plasmonic bottle beam.
Electrically tunable plasmonic resonances with a single layer of graphene Y. Yao, M. A. Kats,P. Genevet, N. Yu and F. Capasso. Nano LettersDOI: 10.1021/nl3047943 (2013). We demonstrate in situ control of antennas using graphene as an electrically tunable load in the nanoscale antenna gap.
Flat Optics: Controlling Wavefronts with Optical Antenna Metasurfaces N. Yu, P. Genevet, F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, J-P. Tetienne, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, DOI:10.1109/JSTQE.2013.2241399 (2013). We discuss the optical responses of anisotropic plasmonic antennas and a new class of planar optical components ("metasurfaces") based on arrays of these antennas.
Thermal tuning of mid-infrared plasmonic antenna arrays using a phase change material M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. Basov, S. Ramanathan and F. Capasso Optics Letters38, 368(2013). We demonstrate that the resonances of infrared plasmonic antennas can be tuned or switched on/off by taking advantage of the thermally driven insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2).
Holographic Detection of the Orbital Angular Momentum of light with plasmonic photodiodes P. Genevet, J. Lin, M. A. Kats and F. Capasso. Nature Communications3:1278 doi:10.1038/ncomms2293 (2012). We have integrated holographic plasmonic interfaces into commercial silicon photodiodes, and demonstrated that such devices can selectively detect the orbital angular momentum of light.
Bifurcation Diagram and Control of Localized Laser Structures P. Genevet, M. Turconi, S. Barland, M. Giudici and J. R. Tredicce. Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials Vol. 21, No. 3, 1250029 (2012). We study the bifurcation and the stability properties of laser solitons.
Reflection and refraction of light from metasurfaces with phase discontinuities F. Aieta, A. Kabiri, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro and F. Capasso Journal of Nanophotonics 6, 063532 (2012). Discussion on two and three dimensional generalization of the laws of refraction and reflection for both flat and curved metasurfaces.
 A Broadband, background free quarter-wave plate based meta-interfaces N. Yu*, F. Aieta*, P. Genevet*, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso. Nano Letters DOI: 10.1021/nl303445u (2012). *Three first authors have equally contributed. We demonstrate optically thin quarter-wave plates built with metasurfaces that generate high-quality circularly polarized light over a broad wavelength range for arbitrary orientation of the incident linear polarization.
 Ultra-thin reconfigurable perfect absorber M.A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang,M. M. Qazilbash, D. Basov, S. Ramanathan, F. Capasso. Applied Physics Letters 101, 221101 (2012). We show that perfect absorption can be achieved in a system comprising a single lossy dielectric layer of thickness much smaller than the incident wavelength on an opaque substrate by utilizing the nontrivial phase shifts at interfaces between lossy media.
 Strong optical interference effects in highly-absorptive media: coloring metals with nanometer-thickness optical films M.A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso Nature Materials doi:10.1038/nmat3443 (2012). We show that under appropriate conditions interference can persist in ultrathin, highly absorbing films of a few to tens of nanometres in thickness, and demonstrate a new type of optical coating comprising such a film on a metallic substrate, which selectively absorbs various frequency ranges of the incident light.
 Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso Nano Letters DOI: 10.1021/nl302516v (2012). The concept of optical phase discontinuities is applied to the design and demonstration of aberration-free planar lenses and axicons, comprising a phased array of ultrathin subwavelength-spaced optical antennas.
 Cosine-Gauss plasmon beam: a localized long-range non-diffracting surface wave J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. De Fornel, F. Capasso Physical Review Letters109, 093904 (2012). A new surface wave is introduced, the cosine-Gauss beam, which does not diffract while it propagates in a straight line and tightly bound to the metallic surface.
 Giant birefringence in plasmonic arrays with widely tailorable optical anisotropy M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, G. Aoust, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences10.1073/pnas.1210686109 (2012). We report a theoretical and experimental study of birefringent arrays of two-dimensional (V- and Y-shaped) optical antennas which support two orthogonal charge-oscillation modes and serve as broadband, anisotropic optical elements that can be used to locally tailor the amplitude, phase, and polarization of light. The degree of optical anisotropy can be designed by controlling the interference between the waves scattered by the antenna modes; in particular, we observe a striking effect in which the anisotropy disappears as a result of destructive interference.
 Modelling nanoscale V-shaped antennas for the design of optical phased arrays R. Blanchard, G. Aoust, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M.A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, F. Capasso, Physical Review B, 85, 155457 (2012). We present a simplified numerical method to solve for the current distribution in a V-shaped antenna excited by an electric field with arbitrary polarization.
 Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities F. Aieta, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro and F. capasso. Nano Letters, 12 (3), pp 17021706 (2012). Experiments on ultrathin anisotropic arrays of subwavelength optical antennas display out-of-plane refraction.
 Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard,M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro and F. Capasso. Applied Physics Letters, 100, 13101 (2012). A flat optical device that generates optical vortices with a variety of topological charges is demonstrated. This device spatially modulates light beams over a distance much smaller than the wavelength in the direction of propagation by means of an array of V-shaped plasmonic antennas with sub-wavelength separation.
 Multi-wavelength mid-infrared plasmonic antennas with single nanoscale focal point R. Blanchard, S. V. Boriskina, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J.P. Tetienne, N. Yu, M. O. Scully, L. Dal Negro, F. Capasso. Optics ExpressVol.19, 22113 (2011). We propose and demonstrate a novel photonic-plasmonic antenna capable of confining electromagnetic radiation at several mid-infrared wavelengths to a single sub-wavelength spot.
 Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components M. A. Kats, N. Yu, P. Genevet, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, Optics ExpressVol. 19, 21748 (2011). We explore the relationship between the near-field enhancement, absorption, and scattering spectra of localized plasmonic elements. A simple oscillator model including both internal and radiative damping is developed, and is shown to accurately capture the near- and far-field spectral features of linear optical antennas, including their phase response.
 Enhancement of optical processes in coupled plasmonic nanocavities P. Genevet, J.P. Tetienne, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, J.P. B. Muller,M. O. Scully and F. Capasso, Invited paper, Applied Optics, 50, G56, (2011). We present detailed experimental and numerical investigations of resonances in deep nanogroove gratings in metallic substrates. These plasmonic nanocavity gratings feature enhanced fields within the grooves that enable a large enhancement of linear and nonlinear optical processes.
 Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, Science 334, 333-337 (2011) New degrees of freedom are attained by introducing abrupt phase changes over the scale of the wavelength. A two-dimensional array of optical resonators with spatially varying phase response and subwavelength separation can imprint such phase discontinuities on propagating light as it traverses the interface between two media. Anomalous reflection and refraction phenomena are observed in this regime in optically thin arrays of metallic antennas on silicon with a linear phase variation along the interface, which are in excellent with generalized laws derived from Fermat’s principle.
 Dipolar modeling and experimental demonstration of multi-beam plasmonic collimators J-P Tetienne, R. Blanchard, N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi and F. Capasso, New Journal of Physics 13, 053057 (2011) We designed a new class of plasmonic gratings that generate multiple free-space beams in arbitrary directions from a point source of surface waves, using a phenomenological model that accurately predicts their far-field, in amplitude, phase and polarization.
 Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings P. Genevet, JP Tetienne, E Gatzogiannis, R Blanchard, MA Kats, MO Scully, F. Capasso, Nano Letters 10 (12), 4880-4883 (2010) We demonstrate a novel plasmonic structure, called plasmonic nanocavity grating, which is shown to dramatically enhance surface nonlinear optical processes. It consists of resonant cavities that are periodically arranged to combine local and grating resonances.
 Theoretical description of the transverse localized structures in a face to face VCSEL configuration L. Columbo, L. Gil and P. Genevet,European Physical Journal D 59, 97-107 (2010). A theoretical framework is derived for the description of the localised structures which have recently been observed in a system of two coupled broad-area VCSEL in a long cavity self imaging configuration.
 Mutual coherence of laser solitons in coupled semiconductor P. Genevet, M. Turconi, S. Barland, M. Giudici and J.R. Tredicce, European Physical Journal D 59, 109-114 (2010). We analyze experimentally the mutual coherence of single-peak laser solitons and of multi-peaks laser solitons or clusters that coexist in the output beam of a laser system. We show that independent laser solitons are not mutually coherent while the peaks of a cluster have a well established mutual phase relationship.
 Bistable and addressable localized vortices in semiconductor lasers P. Genevet, S. Barland, M. Giudici and J.R. Tredicce, Physical Review Letters, 104, 223902 (2010). We demonstrate experimentally that localized emission states in coupled broad-area semiconductor lasers can carry a finite orbital angular momentum.
 Multistable monochromatic laser solitons P. Genevet, L. Columbo, S. Barland, M. Giudici, L. Gil, and J. R. Tredicce, Physical Review A 81, 053839 (2010). We study the spectral properties of stationary laser solitons (LSs) generated in two broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting lasers coupled to each other in face-to-face configuration . We demonstrate experimentally that LS emission occurs on a single longitudinal mode frequency of the compound cavity. Multistability is reported among differently “colored” LSs
 Stationary Localized Structures and Pulsing Structures in Cavity Soliton Laser P. Genevet, S. Barland, M. Giudici and J.R. Tredicce, Physical Review A 79, 033819 (2009) We realized experimentally a cavity soliton laser by mutually coupling in face to face configuration two broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, one set to work as amplifier while the second, biased below transparency, plays the role of a saturable absorber. We explore the parameter space, showing the robustness of cavity solitons in this system, and we analyze their switching process. We also report on structures pulsing at the roundtrip time of the compound cavity defined by the two devices.
 Microresonator Defects as Sources of Drifting Cavity Solitons E. Caboche, F. Pedaci, P. Genevet, S. Barland,M. Giudici, J.R. Tredicce,G. Tissoni and L. A. Lugiato,Physical Review Letters 102, 163901 (2009). we show that the interplay between these defects and a phase gradient in the driving field induces the spontaneous formation of a regular sequence of CSs moving in the gradient direction. Hence, defects behave as a device built-in CS source, where the CS generation rate can be set by controlling the system parameters.
 Cavity Soliton Laser based on mutually coupled semiconductor microresonators P. Genevet , S. Barland, M. Giudici, J.R. Tredicce, Physical Review Letters 101, 123905 (2008). We report on experimental observation of localized structures in two mutually coupled broad-area semiconductor resonators, one of which acts as a saturable absorber. These structures coexist with a dark homogeneous background and they have the same properties as cavity solitons without requiring the presence of a driving beam into the system. They can be switched individually on and off by means of a local addressing beam.
 All-optical delay line using semiconductor cavity solitons F. Pedaci, S. Barland, E. Caboche, P. Genevet, M. Giudici, and J. R. Tredicce, T. Ackemann, A. J. Scroggie,W. J. Firth, G.-L. Oppo G. Tissoni, R. Jager, Applied Physics Letters 92, 011101 (2008). An all-optical delay line based on the lateral drift of cavity solitons in semiconductor microresonators is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The functionalities of the device proposed as well as its performance is analyzed and compared with recent alternative methods based on the decrease of group velocity in the vicinity of resonances.
 Positionning cavity solitons with a phase mask F. Pedaci,P. Genevet, S. Barland, M. Giudici, J.R. Tredicce,Applied Physics Letters 89 221111 (2006). Using a liquid crystal light valve to spatially modulate the phase of a coherent beam injected into a broad area vertical cavity semiconductor laser, the authors create reconfigurable arrays of cavity solitons. Fast time scales associated with semiconductor lasers and plasticity of localized structures suggest their potential for optical data.
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